Periodontal (gum) diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis, are serious infections which, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss. Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth. Periodontal disease is not a local infection, it usually involves all the teeth. It begins when the bacteria in plaque (the sticky, colourless film that constantly forms on your teeth) causes gum inflammation.

Risk factors for the progression of Periodontal disease


Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. The gums become red, swollen and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good home oral care.


Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. The gum tissue and bone that support the teeth are destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, forming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. If the teeth become loose, they must be removed.

Video 1: Gingival changes during periodontal desease

Dr. Višnja Blaškovic-Šubat, specialist in endodontics and periodontics, has extensive expertise in treating dental root canals and periodontal disease, resolving difficult endodontic and periodontal cases and saving teeth.

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